A Brief Introduction of Honghe Hani & Yi Autonomous Prefecture -Honghe University

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A Brief Introduction of Honghe Hani & Yi Autonomous Prefecture
2016-04-11 17:24   审核人:

Lying in the southeast part of Yunnan Province, Honghe Hani & Yi Autonomous Prefecture (simply referred to as “Honghe Prefecture” hereafter ) is located between 101° 47' 104°16′ east longitude and 22°26′24°45′north latitude, with Kunming City on its northern border, Yuxi City on its west, and Qujin City on its northeast. It borders Vietnam on the south, and with a borderline of 848 km. Honghe  Prefecture occupies a total area of 33,000 square kilometers, of which the mountainous areas constitute 85% of the total space. The Ailaoshan Mountain, one of the major mountains in Honghe prefecture winds its way into the territory of Vietnam. The tropic of cancer goes through Gejiu city, Mengzi city and Jianshui county of Honghe Prefecture.

The history of Honghe  Prefecture can be traced back to 135 B.C. The Han Dynasty established Yizhou County in present Honghe Prefecture. On Dec 1949, the People’ Administration of South Yunnan established in Jianshui County, the name was changed into The Administrative & Inspective Office of Mengzi on Feb 1950, and it was transferred to Mengzi on the following month. On Nov 1957, Honghe Hani & Yi Autonomous  Prefecture was established in Mengzi. Gejiu, a city under the direct jurisdiction of the provincial government was added to the jurisdiction of Honghe prefecture, and henceforth the prefecture capital was transferred to Gejiu. The prefecture capital moved to Mengzi with the approval of the State Department on Nov 18th, 1957.

Honghe Prefecture boasts it of abundance of wildlife. It is nicknamed as “the natural kingdom of wildlife”, “the bank for genes of life-forms”.  There are as many as 116 kinds of treasured animals, with Malaysia bear, India tiger, gibbon, sloth monkey, grey monkey, leopard, deer, saurian, snake, black crane, green peacock, pheasant and golden eagle as national first grade animals to be protected. The plants amounts to more than 7,000 kinds, and cycad and golden camellia--- both national first grade protect plants are among them. There are 774 vertebrates and 911 Chinese herbal medicines. The land of Honghe is crisscrossed with four water systems of the Honghe River, the Tengtiaojiang River, the Lixianjiang River and the Nanpanjiang Rivers, with a water power reserve totaling 5,000,000 kilowatts, of which 3,000,000 kilowatts can be developed. There is a rich mineral reserve of more than 50 kinds in Honghe Prefecture, and the reserve of tin is 780,000 tons, the reserve of copper is 1,000,000 tons, the reserve of zinc is 600,000 tons, the reserve of tungsten is 130,000 tons, the reserve of nickle is 50,000 tons, the reserve of coal is 430,000,000 tons, and the reserve of nepheline is 3 billion tons. The potential value of minerals, nepheline, and coal respectively amounts to 400 billion, 5000 billion, and 500 billion Yuan.

The age-old history, splendid culture, and glorious tradition have produced diversified tourism resources in Honghe  Prefecture. Jianshui, a state historic and cultural county as well as state tourist attraction; Shiping, provincial historic and cultural county; Gejiu, tin capital of the world; Mengzi, contemporary historic and cultural county; Hekou, a state port city, Kaiyuan, a provincial garden city, are all places worthy of visit. Hani Rice Terraces in Yuanyang was accepted into world heritage list in 2013; the Zhu’s Mansion (also known as “Grand View Garden in South Yunnan”), and the folk houses in Tuanshan of Jianshui were taken into the protection list for commemorative architectural heritages and top100 endangered relics. There are still other time-honored buildings like 600-year-old Zhengying of Shiping County (nicknamed as “the first village of Yunnan”), the Grand Confucius Temple in Jianshui (second only to the Confucius Temple in Qufu of Shandong Province, with a glorious history of more than 600 years), the Chaoyanglou City Gate Tower was built in 1389, 28 years earlier than the world famed Tian’anmen City Gate Tower of Beijing.

The Zhilinsi Temple of Jianshui was the earliest zen temple in south Yunnan Province. The state protection project, the office building of the local chief of ethnic minorities is well preserved. The Shuanglongqiao Bridge of Jianshui is one the top ten bridges regarding scale and artistic value provincial wide. The Alu old Cave in Luxi is regarded as number one of its kind in Yunnan Province. The Swallows Cave of Jianshui is commented as one of the most magnificent karst cave in Asia. The three state nature reserves, namely the Daweishan Mountain, the Fenshuiling (watershed) Mountain and the Huanglianshan  Mountain are rich in natural resources. The Yilonghu Lake in Shiping is said to be one of the eight plateau lakes in Yunnan. Jinpingshan Park, Qinglai Park and Huquan Spring Park in Mile have a charm of their own.

 

General Introduction of Mengzi

Mengzi is located on the southeastern part of Honghe Prefecture, with a total area of 2,228 square kilometers. There are 19 ethnic groups besides Han people, with a total population up to 390,800. Honghe Comprehensive Free Trade Zone, first of its kind in Yunnan Province, is located Mengzi.

With tropic of cancer going across the county, Mengzi is located on the watershed of the Pearl River and the Honghe River. The climate here belongs to subtropical monsoon climate, with the average temperature of 18.6., annual precipitation of 815.8mm, annual frost-free period of 337 days and average annual sunshine period of 2234 hours. All those conditions are very contributed to the growth of crops and modern agriculture development. Mengzi is also abundant in the reserve of metals and other resources such as silver, tin, lead, zinc, copper, phosphorus, uranium, coal and marble. Among them, the reserve of silver is the largest in China .

Mengzi is one of the 24 earliest cities or counties in Yunnan  Province with a history of nearly a thousand years. The importance of Mengzi is very prominent in the modern and contemporary history of Yunnan, since it was the biggest port in foreign business, through which more than 80% of the goods were transported. Mengzi boasts itself of many “number one ” of Yunnan Province, namely, the first custom, the first telegraph bureau, the first post office, the first foreign bank, the first private railway, the first foreign company, the first power plant, the first consulate in Yunnan. The deposit of pluralistic culture makes Mengzi one of the important birthplace of modern industry and business of Yunnan  Province. It is a famed historic and cultural city with a great potential of developing sports, cultures, tourism, science and technology.

Being the largest basin in south Yunnan, Mengzi is a favorable place for investment and business. It is an ideal place for living, advantageous potential for developing modern agriculture and developing biological resources. It has enjoyed the title of “a Beautiful Camille” given by Guo moruo, a famous writer of China . It is also known for being the birthplace of “Guoqiaomixian ”(a snack with rice noodle as the main source), “the Hometown of Pomegranates”, and “Model Town for Agricultural Tourism”. Mengzi is also known the largest silver base and the rising biggest zinc- base of the world.

 

General Introduction of Gejiu

Gejiu is nicknamed “Tin Capital of the World”, and it is a medium industrial city featuring metal industry. Situated in south Yunnan’s Honghe Prefecture, Gejiu is 200 km from Vietnam and 280 km from Kunming, the capital of Yunnan  Province. It has a total area of 1,578 square km, with a population of 453,300, of which 309,500 are urban citizens. There live some indigenous ethnic minorities such as the Yi, Zhuang, Hui, Miao, Dai and Hani nationalities totaling 120,000.

Gejiu is located against the Ailao Mountain, with tropic of cancer going through the city, and the mountainous area accounts for 86%. The average altitude is above 2,000 m, and the highest peak is the Lianhua Hill with an elevation of 2,740 m, while the lowest point is Manhao  Township with an elevation of 150 m. On the banks of the Honghe River, there are valleys and lowlands. Plenty resources of metals, plants and animals are reserved in the mountainous areas of Gejiu.

The climate belongs to subtropical monsoon climate. Gejiu is free from bitter cold in winter and torrid hot in summer with an average temperature of 16.. The highest temperature is no more than 29 and it is rare to meet subzero temperature. With adequate sunshine and precipitation, it is very pleasant to live in the garden city of Gejiu. The city is full of romance with its natural beauty and elegance brought by the lakes, woods, waterfalls and hot   springs.

Gejiu is proud of its time-honored tradition and splendid culture. The development history is closely related with tin, one of the valuable metals. As early as the Han Dynasty, the craftsmen here grasped the skill of making tin copper. The production of tin was recorded by the Great British Encyclopedia. From the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the craftworks made of tin have been world noted for their elegance and brilliance. Nowadays, the refined tin produced by Yunnan Tin Co., Lt. enjoys great credit and are listed as national inspection-free product.

    Thanks to particular geological and geographical environment, as well as time-honored tin exploitation, a variety of landforms took form. According to the distribution, the landscapes can be divided roughly into four zones. Among them, the Manhao zone, 83 km away from the city proper, is located on the intersection of the Lvshuihe River and the Honghe River, featuring tropic rainforest and treasured plants. It is an ideal place for scientific investigation, tourism and exploration. The urban zone highlights splendid tin culture and beautiful Lakes and gorgeous mountains, and it is more suitable for tourism, amusement, shopping, and making holiday.

 

General Introduction of Kaiyuan

Lying in the middle east of Honghe Prefecture, Kaiyuan is located between 23°30´ and 23°58´N, 103°04´and 103°43´E. It borders Qiubei and Yanshan of Wenshan prefecture on the east, Mengzi and Gejiu on the south, Jianshui on the west, and Mile on the north. The Daheshan Hill of Dazhuang town is the highest point of Kaiyuan with an elevation of 2,705 m.

Kaiyuan is abundant in coal reserve. In Xiaolongtan Town, which is 20 km from the city proper, there is the biggest open coal mine of Yunnan  Province with lignite reserve reaching 1.2 billion tons and yearly output amounting to 6.3 million tons. A power plant of 600 thousand kilowatts provides power for hundreds of enterprises. Prolific grains and sugar canes provide raw materials for production. The industries of cement making, fertilizer making, sugar-making, paper-making, wine brewing, and food making have been on full wings.

There are 12 rivers and streams as well as more than 60 lakes and pools in Kaiyuan. The Sanjiaohai Lake covers an area of 4.33 square km, and it was transformed into a reservoir with a capacity of 2,700 square meters. The climate belongs to subtropical monsoon climate. Because of low altitude and high geographic location, Kaiyuan has an annual average temperature ranging from 18.9℃ to 20.4℃, with an annual rainfall of 840mm and frost-free period of 341 days. With an annual average sunshine period accounting for 69%, the natural conditions are very conductive to the growth of crops, and the forest coverage is 10.6%.

 

General Introduction of Jianshui

Jianshui, 220 kilometers south of Kunming, is a state historic and cultural city with a total area of 3,789 square km. There live in Jianshui the Hans, the Yis, the Huis, the Hanis, the Dais and the Miaos etc. with a total population of 510,000. The tourism gets soaring after Jianshui was nominated as state historic and cultural city as well as state key scenic spot in the year of 1994.

The climatic condition here is pleasant, neither hot in summer nor cold in winter. Moreover, it is one of the earliest developed cities in south Yunnan that enjoys the fame of being an ancient cultural city and important gateway. Since the Yuan Dynasty, it was the political, cultural and communication center in south Yunnan. Jianshui got the name because the basin was flooded every summer and autumn in the past. In Mandarin, Jianshui means to fight against the flood. From the establishment of the city in the Tang Dynasty (618-907AD) to now, Jianshui  County has had a history of over 1,180 years. It is one of the areas that have been deeply influenced by the Central Plains culture. The long history of Jianshui has produced its splendid culture. Due to its early development, Jianshui produced thousands of scholars. Moreover, with the influence of the grand Jianshui Confucius Temple, it was rightfully called "the Cultural  City" since the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).

The age-old history, splendid culture and glorious tradition have produced many historic sites in Jianshui. With more than 100 ancient temples, 50 ancient bridges and 56 state-protection cultural relics, Jianshui enjoys the fame "the Museum of Ancient Constructions", which highlights the ancient Chinese culture and art. Jianshui is also rich in natural resources, including manganese, iron, lead -zinc, copper and others. The reserve of discharge manganese accounts for one-third of the national total. Besides, Jianshui is devoted to developing local handicrafts, among which Jianshui earthenware is the most well known as it is one of the four celebrated potteries in China

 

General Introduction of Shiping

Located in the north west of Honghe  Prefecture, Shiping occupies an area of 3037 square km, with altogether 12 townships under its jurisdiction. The population of ethnic minorities living in Shiping accounts for 52.9% of the total, and the Yi, Dai and Hani outnumber the others.

The climate belongs to subtropical monsoon climate. Due to different heights of the landforms, the climate varies a lot in the county. There is adequate sunshine, and the annual average temperature is 18. There is adequate rainfall, and the annual precipitation is 786-1116mm. All those natural conditions are very conducive to the growth of tropic and subtropical crops.

The landscape in Shiping is quite enjoyable. The Yilonghu Lake and Chiruihu Lake are very attractive for their limpidity and natural flavors. Besides many places of historic interest and scenic beauty, the minority songs and dances are very charming. It is the birthplace of the world-noted Haicai Song of the Yi people, Yanhe Dance (dance with two tobacco cases) and other unique songs and dances of Nisu people.

Shiping is rich in natural resources, and there are more than 20 metals such as iron core, tin, lead, zinc, silver, and manganese, with a total reserve amounting to 332 million tons. The water reserve is 602 million cubic meters, with 397 million cubic meters of surface water (66%) and 205 million cubic meters of underground water (34%). Based on the Yilonghu Lake and the Chiruihu Lake, Shiping is famous for its fishery, with more than 1000 tons of fishes produced annually. Moreover, bean products of Shiping enjoy a great fame nationwide. Shiping bean cud, one of the provincial specialities, was graded as quality goods by National Department of Commerce and sells well both home and abroad.

 

General Introduction of Mile

Mile is located in the north of Honghe Prefecture. It borders Luxi and Qiubei on the east, Kaiyuan on the south, Jianshui and Huaning on the west, Yiliang and Shilin on the north. The total area is 4,004 square km. Miyang, the county site, has an altitude of 1,432m. Mile is 130 km from Kunming, the capital city of Yunnan Province and 131 km from Mengzi, the capital city of Honghe Hani & Yi Autonomous Prefecture.

There are 13 townships under the jurisdiction of Mile. There are many peoples including the Han, Yi, Hui and Zhuang living there, and the population of ethnic minorities is 252,900, which accounts for 41.42% of the total.

The climate belongs to subtropical monsoon climate. Due to different altitudes, the climate varies a lot which displays the characteristic of subtropical and variable zone. The annual average temperature is 17.1℃, and the annual sunshine period is 2168 hours. Of 365 days year round, 349 days are frost free. The annual precipitation is 928.56mm, with a relative humidity of 69.5%. The main metals found in Mile are coal, iron, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, alumina, sulfur, gypsum and marble, etc. What is worth noting, the reserve of soft coal amounts to 132 million tons, covering 52.5 square km. The reserve of lignite is 882 million tons, covering some 70 square km. In the year of 1997, Mile was listed as one of the 200 counties to produce coals.

Since there are some rivers in Mile, the hydroenergy reserve amounts to 127,500 kw, of which 31,200 kw is practical to develop. The scenic spot of White Dragon Cave is 20 km from the county seat, and it is regarded as “a unique scene of South Yunnan” for its magnificence.  Another scenic spot, the historic Milesi  Temple is 9 km from the county seat, and it was entitled Jinpingshan Scenic Spot in 1999. Visitors throng in to worship the Mile Buhhda, the biggest engraved Buhda in China . The summer resort of Dashulongtan Spring, which is only 3 km from the county seat, is actually a compound of tourism, vacation and recreation. The Meihua Hot Spring contains mineralized carbonic acid, and the water temperature ranges from 29℃ to 54℃, so it is of healing function. Apart from these, Mile is famous for Qinglai Park, the former residence of Xiongqinglai (a prestigious mathematician born in Mile), Fuquan Zoological Garden, the Yi nationality style tourism village in Keyi of Xisan Town, the vine garden and Honghe Cigarette Factory, etc.

 

General Introduction of Luxi

Luxi is located in the north of Honghe Prefecture. On the southeast, it borders Qiubei with the Nanpanjiang  River, on the northeast, it borders Shizong, on the northwest, it borders Luliang and Shilin, on the south, it borders Mile. Covering a total area of 1,674 square km, its widest stretch from the east to the west is 54 km, and the largest expansion from the south to the north is 54.75 km. The mountainous area accounts for 82.4% and the basin accounts for 17.6% of the total coverage. The county seat is 170 km from Kunming, the capital city of Yunnan Province and 180 km from Mengzi, the capital city of Honghe   Hani & Yi Autonomous Prefecture.

The population equals to 374,000, with the rural population amounting to 336,500, accounting for 90.3 of the total. The ethnic minorities in Luxi are the Yis, Huis, Zhuangs, Miaos, and Dais, with a population of 45,000, which is 12% of the total.

The landforms in Luxi are very complicated, mountains, rivers, hills and valleys crisscross the county, of which karst landform is very typical. Paddy rice, corn, wheat, potato, horsebean, cole, tobacco, capsicum, peanut, sugar cane, pear and pyrethrum can be grown here. A certain reserve of coal, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, cobalt, magnesium, etc. has been detected in Luxi. Among them, the reserve of quality coal amounts to 160 million tons.

There are five scenic areas with over 20 scenic spots, featuring the harmonious unity of caves, lakes and springs. “The First cave in Yunnan”, 3000-meter-long Alu Old Cave, is a rare spectacular scene, as a result, it is nominated as one of the national 16 tourism lines, one of the top 36 national scenic spots. At the same time, it is one of the top quality scenic areas of Yunnan Province. The Wuzhe Hot Spring, which is 18m from the county seat, is an ideal place for vacation, amusement, tourism and recuperation. The neighboring Shanhuaqing  Long Lake is nicknamed “small three gorges” for its magnificent lakes and mountains. There are still other places of historic interest and scenic beauty waiting for your visit.

 

General Introduction of Yuanyang

Yuanyang is located on the south section of the Ailao  Mountain. It borders Jinping county on the east, Luchun county on the south, and Honghe county on the west. It has a total area of 2,292 square km. There are 7 indigenous peoples living in Yuanyang, namely the Hani, Yi, Han, Zhuang, Yao and Dai nationalities. Of the total population of 400,000, that of ethnic minorities accounts for 875. The largest ethnic group is Hani (about 200,000), the second largest is Yi (about 100,000). The landform features mountainous characteristics. The highest altitude reaches 2,939.6 m, and the lowest is only 144 m. From the hilltop to hill bottom, there exist tropic, subtropical and variable zone climates. Because of large scale landslide, the county government moved from Xinjie (the old town) to Nansha (the new town) in 1995. The old town was built against the mountains, located on the altitude between 1,539 m and 1,650 m, and Xinjie is famous for comfortable climate and unique scenery. The charm of Xinjie town lies in the fact that it is enclosed in fogs for about 180 days very year, hence got the name “A mountainous Town of Fog”. In 2000, Nansha town was taken into the list of the first batch of garden city in Yunnan together with Kaiyuan, Hekou, Kunming and An’ning.

In Yuanyang, the Hani nationality outnumbers any others, amounting to some 200,000, accounting for 52.7% of the total. Generally speaking, the natural landscape in Yuanyang is very unique, and the human landscape is colorful, with Hani terraces as its representative. Hani people has its own language system, and Hani language belongs to Tibet- Burma branch of Sino-tibetan language system.

There are rich mineral recourses in Yuanyang, for example, lead, gold, copper, gypsum, crystal and graphite, etc. Among them, lead, gold and crystal produced in Yuangyan are widely known for their superb quality.

 

General Introduction of Hekou

Hekou is located on the intersection of the Honghe River and the Nanxihe River, hence got its name “Hekou” (literally means “the entry of a river”). Hekou County was founded on the New Year’s Day of 1950. In 1963, approved by the standing committee of the national congress and the state department, it changed its name to “Hekou Autonomous County of Yao Nationality ”. The total coverage of Hekou is 1,332 square km, among which 9776 is mountainous areas. Altogether there are 24 peoples such as the Yaos, Miaos, Zhaungs, Hans, Yis, Buyis and Dais, living in this county. Of the total population of 100,000, the number of ethnic minorities amounts to about 60,000, half of which are the Yaos. Hekou is a state-level port with a borderline of 193 km (120 km by land and 73 km by water). The climate there belongs to tropical rainforest monsoon climate featuring hot and humidity in summer and warm in winter. The highest temperature amount to 409℃, and the lowest is 19℃, with the average of 226℃ and relative humidity of 85. The highest point is 2,363 m, and the lowest is only 76.4 m (the lowest point in southwest China ). The forest coverage amounts to 35.8%.

Nowadays, Hekou is not only a state-level port, but also an important window for opening to the outside world as well as one of the most convenient route leading to the southeast Asia. Hekou is 469 km northward from Kunming, 416 km from Vietnam ’s Ho Chi Minh City, a famed port city, and 295 km from Hanoi, capital city of Vietnam . The Yunnan-Vietnam railway, Honghe River and Nanxihe River are traffic trunks to connect Vietnam . The Kunming-Hekou High Way comes to an end in Hekou. Hekou is one of the tropic fruits producing base and famous for its tropic fruits and plants, such as rubber, teak, banana, and pineapple. Border trade, tourism and the development of tropic goods constitute the three pillar industries in Hekou.

 

General Introduction of Pingbian

Pingbian Miao Autonomous County lies in the southeast part of Honghe  Prefecture. It borders Wenshan and Maguan of Wenshan Profecture on the east, the state port of Hekou on the south, Mengzi Provincial Development Zone on the north. It covers 1,906 square km, with a population of 150,000. There are 17 peoples living in Pingbian, and the population of all minorities accounts for 62% of total. Being the only Miao Autonomous  County, the largest population belongs to Miao people, which is nearly 60,000, accounting for 39.6% of the total. There are colorful cultures and folklores of the minorities. Besides Caihuashan, an influencing festivity celebration, there are Jumping Palms and Three-steps String of the Yi, Flower and Rice festival of the Zhuang, etc. The highest point is Babapo, which is 2,590m high, and the lowest point is 154m in the valley of Sanchahe River. The main drags to the southeastern Asia, the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway and Kunming-Hekou   Highway go through Pingbian. The climate belongs to subtropical mountain monsoon climate featuring hot in summer and cold in winter. The highest temperature amounts to 309℃, and the lowest is 13℃, with the average of 165℃. 334 days are frost free out of 365 days in a year. The annual rainfall is 1,645mm, and the annual sunshine period is 1555 hours. Mountainous landform accounts for 99% of the total. Pingbian is rich in resources, and the forest covers 65.2 mu (1/15 ha.). There are abundant mineral resources like stibium, lead, zinc, manganese, marble, blind coal, silica, granite and phosphorous. In the area with an altitude less than 1,000 m, tropic fruits like lichee, longan, banana, pineapple grow well. There is a number of rare wildlife in Daweishan, a state nature reserve.

General Introduction of Jinping

Jinping is located on the south bank of the Honghe  River, with a coverage 3,685.69 square km. since the mountainous area accounts for 9946 of the total area, mountains and rivers features the landform. 117 rivers and streams of the Honghe Rivers and the Tengtiaojiang  River crisscross the county. The highest point is on Xilongshan Mountain (3074.3m), and the lowest point is 105m on the intersection of the Honghe River and the Longbohe River. The annual precipitation is 2251-2800mm. based on different point of a mountain, one can experience tropic, subtropical and temperate climate at the same season. That is what we call “four seasons can be found in a mountain, different climate only a mile away”. Take the watershed (with an altitude of 2,300m and above) for example, it is cool and foggy all the year round, Mengla (with an altitude of some 300 m) enjoys summer climate all the time. In Jinshuihe town, the county seat, it is cool in summer and warm in winter, with average temperature of 17.8℃. The unique landforms and climates are advantageous to the growth of various plants. Being a hometown of different peoples, there are the Miao, Yao, Dai, Hani, Yi, Zhuang, and Lagu people living in Jinping. Mangren, which has not been identified as any minority, lives in Jinping. The population is 316,000, among which the ethnic minorities accounts for 86%. The Miao is the main people there who has the largest population of 80,000, next comes Yao with 40,000, Dai with 18,000. The Hanis and Yis amount respectively to 80,000 and 40,000.

 

General Introduction of Honghe

Honghe County is located on the south bank of the Honghe  River. It has an area of 2,057 square km, and the mountainous part accounts for 96%. The valley accounts for only 4%. The highest point is 2,745.8 m and the lowest point is 259 m. The annual average temperature is 23℃, with an annual precipitation of 1340mm. It borders Yuanyang on the east, Luchun on the south, Yuanjiang and Mojiang on the west. Shiping and Jianshui lie to its north. The county seat is in Yisa town. In the history, besides the indigenous Hanis, Yis, Hans, Dais and Yaos, there are other peoples living in Honghe, namely the Menggus, Huis, Zhuangs, Bais, Achangs and Miaos etc. The Hani nationality amounts to 202,139, accounting for 75.39%; the Yi amount to 38,965, accounting for 14.53%; the Dai amount to 7872, accounting for 2.94%; the Yao amounts to 1989, accounting for 0.74%.

Located between the south verge of the Hengduanshan Mountain and the buffer zone of the Ailao Mountain, Honghe is abundant in mountains and hills with narrow valley. Apart from several small basins in the valleys, more than 96% of the landform belongs to mountain. The highest point is 2,745.8 m, and the lowest point is 259 m, with the average of 1,000-2,000 m. The climate belongs to subtropical monsoon climate, and the climate varies according to the different height of the location. The annual temperature is 20.9℃, the annual precipitation is 945.3 mm. The cultivated area is 171,040 mu (1/15 ha.), with 412,700 mu of forest, and the forest coverage reaches 14.2%. The forests scatter on the southern and southwestern mountains. The Amushan was approved nature reserve by the provincial government. There are some rare animals in Honghe, such as boa, sloth monkey, gibbon, leopard, and Malaysian bear ect. The main plants are pine, fir, and birth etc. the mineral resources are copper, lead, zinc, iron, molybdenum and gold. Nonmetal materials are gypsum, asbestos, marble, granite, spar and silica. Across the county, there are more than 20 rivers, which belong to the Honghe, the Lixianjiang and Tengtiaojiang water system. The flux of surface water amounts to 1,266 million cubic m, and the flux of underground water amounts to 430 million m. Of the water power reserve of 197,800 kw, 82,000 kw can be developed.

 

General Introduction of Luchun

Located on the southwest of Honghe Prefecture, Luchun borders Yuanyang, Jinping on the east, and Honghe on the north, Mojiang on the southwest, Vietnam on the southeast. The borderline covers 153 km, with a total area of 3,096 square km. the county seat is situated in Daxing Town (1,640m in altitude), it is 462 km from Kunming, the capital city of Yunnan and 270 km from Mengzi, capital city of Honghe Prefecture. 

The population is 205,000, and there live in Luchun the Hani, Yi, Yao, Lagu, Dai and Han nationalities. The population of ethnic minorities accounts for 98.2%. Since the Hanis accounts for 88.2% of the total population, Luchun is called “Home for the Hanis”.

The climate belongs to subtropical monsoon climate, and the climate varies according to the different height of the location. Several categories of climates can be found here, like tropical climate, subtropical climate and climate of moderate zone. The annual temperature is 16.6℃, and the annual precipitation is 2,400 mm. More than 340 days are frost free in a year. The farm land of tropical and subtropical conditions amount to 2,506,800 mu, with 1,000,000 mu below the altitude of 1,000 m, which is mainly for developing rubber (111,000 mu). The forest covers 93,457 ha, the land for forestry amounts to 146,600 ha., and forest coverage is more the 40%. The state nature reserve of the Huanglianshan Mountain is very pleasant for the growth of propagation. There are some 20 rare animals like gibbon, tiger, deer, peacock, and golden monkey. There are also many rare plants living there. There are many natural resources like coal, sulfur, arsenic and silica etc, mineral resources like gold, silver, copper, iron, manganese and tungsten. It has been detected that Niubo gold mine, gold mine Longtu, and Damajianshan lead and arsenic mine are worth developing. There are many rivers and streams in Luchun, so flux area accounts for 95.1% of the total. With a water power reserve of 1,676,000 kw, there is a great potential to develop the power. The Huanglianshan Mountain, a state nature reserve, is very beautiful for its peculiar scenery. The Dafengyakou Karst  Cave, the mysterious meeting of birds, and the magnificent landscape of Hani Terraces, the custom and folklores are attractive for tourists.

 

Local Dance & Song

Haicaiqiang Song

Folk music is very popular among the Yi nationality. Music is an effective way for them to express their emotions, to amuse themselves, and even to educate themselves. In the history, folk songs have been used to record facts, exchange ideas, and spread culture. Folk songs can be heard at festivals, sacrifice occasions, weddings as well as funerals. Besides, folk songs are also produced on the occasions of laboring, amorism, and building houses.

Originating from the love songs between the young lovers, Hicaiqiang song got its name from a kind of hydrophilic herbs which grow in the Yilonghu Lake. This kind of song takes form based on the laboring and living of the Yi nationality. After its birth, it has become very popular in the countryside as well as in towns around the Yilonghu  Lake.

It is a particular kind of Yunnan folk songs which enjoys world fame. With a popular name of “Haicaichang” it is sung mainly in the villages of Nisu of the Yi nationality, Shiping, Honghe Hani   & Yi Autonomous Prefecture.

The folk songs of the Yi originated from the process of labor, and scatter among ordinary people. Haicaiqiang can be regarded as a magnificent flower of folk arts, and its highlights are a fair sounding melody, easily remembered lyrics, and it is enjoyed by the Yi nationality.

    No matter old or young, men or women, everyone is familiar with these kinds of songs.

 

Yanhe Dance (Dance with two tobacco cases)

The Yanhe Dance is a folk dance of the Nisupo, a branch of the Yi nationality, which is popular among the Yi nationality inhabited areas in south Yunnan’s Gejiu, Shiping, Jianshui, Mengzi, Kaiyuan, Tonghai, and Yuanjiang. It literally means “Dance with two tobacco cases”, since the dancer holds two tobacco cases as props. The Yi nationality is very fond of the Yanhe Dance, and the Yanhe Dance has two categories.  One is called Zhengxian, and the other is called Zaxian. For Zhengxian, the dancer dances without any music, and for Zaxian, the dancer sings while dancing. There are a variety of themes highlighting production, moral education, animals’ lives, etc.

 

Zongshan Dance (Dance with palm fan)

The Zongshan Dance originated from the Haoni branch of the Hani nationality. Just like the Hans, Haoni people celebrate the Chinese New Year. Every year from Jan 3 th to Jan 5th on the Chinese lunar calendar, the Haoni people hold a grand Zongshan Dance as a festival celebration.

With delicious food and good wine, the male grownups throng to the open square to organize a street feast. The occasion is particular only for men, presided by a venerable old man. By dancing, they believe all the dirty things and diseases can be gotten rid of, and happiness and good fortune can be brought in. After the dance, they just sit down to eat and bid toast to each other, singing songs to express their wishes for happiness, luckiness, health and bumper harvest.

 

Special Local Products:

Old tin handicraft product

The tin handicraft in Gejiu, made from the refined raw tin material of high pure degree of the local product, is gone through several procedures as melting, slice pressing, cutting, shaping, brightening, assembling and polishing etc. The products are developed from 10 kinds of models into the present 10 series composed of three hundred models, mainly wine wares, tea vessels, cutleries, trophies, different kinds of decorations, and artistic appreciation wares etc. Through designing, chiseling and carving work with meticulous care by those artisans, craftsmen, and technical experts, the handicraft products become shapely beautiful, culturally generous, lustrously shining, extremely keen, and also long lasting. They are different shapes of symmetry, erect, round or square, and some are patterned with landscapes, human figures, flowers, birds, insects, fish and minority clothing patterns of pleasant impression of different forms. The products with precious collection value are not only some refined arts but also the domestic articles with cultural and special ethnic features. The tea cans in which tea can be kept for about 10 years but still keeping good quality. Wine in tin vessels and pots can also be fresh and cool taste in summer, and heat transmitted quicker in winter if heated. Because they owe characteristics like acid-proof, anti- alkali, nonpoisonous, stainless, antisepsis etc. they are famous in China and many foreign countries, and being sold very well to very where in China, and exported to more than 30 countries and regions like Japan, Germany, England, Switzerland and the United States etc..

 

Purple Pottery

On the foundation of long-lasting original production, the unique pottery industry of brown mud craft arts, also called purple pottery, was set up by those civil artisans adopted some special techniques in production in late Qing Dynasty, and it became prosperous thereafter. The purple pottery is made through several procedures such as soaking pottery soil of superior quality, clay forming, picture painting and no-enamel polishing, a type of new technique in which much work is done such as calligraphy painting, knife depicting, white or colorful mud filling, burning, and finally carefully polishing with stones. The finished product is in delicate quality and free of harmful materials such as lead and chromium but clean, smooth and well ventilated, the color looks like copper, the sound hears like bell, and the surface is as bright and shining as mirror. The main colors are normally brown inlaid with white flowers, or white inlaid with yellow, blue or red. Because much attention is paid to pottery decoration, the ancient poems, the short phrases, the flowers and the bird feathers are always written, painted or engraved on and in the pottery making the gold and the stone, the calligraphy and the art in the integral whole. The pottery has not only got practical value but also beauty appreciation. As a result, the pottery has gained much fame of craft-art pottery, also called “the treasure in pottery” sharing the reputations of “four famous potteries” with other three different ones ----the Yixing pottery in Jiangsu, the Shiwan pottery in Guangdong, and the Rongcang pottery in Sichuan, and subjected to much fancy both in and outside China,

 

Mengzi New Year Cake

The Mengzi New Year cake is one of the traditional typical foods in Yunnan. It has already possessed its great reputation for more than 300 years for it has some characteristics like: nice looking, oily smooth surface, delicate quality, pure and sweet flavor, pliant and proper tough taste. One may never be tired of eating it.

It is finely made from glutinous rice as choice good quality raw material. After having it milled into flour syrup with water, many ingredients are added and mixed in, such as the brown sugar or refined sugar, sesame, rosy sugar, shelled peanut and ham etc. The ready mixture with the fixed amount infusion is put into a bowl at its bottom with a fresh bean-curd film laid. After steaming at a temperature of 150 C, the extra oil is taken after cooling off and printed with trade marks before getting ready for the market 

The shape of the new-year cake is just like a small bowl with two different colors as the brown and the white---- the brown one looks red brown, while the white one is slightly yellow.

It is of good quality but inexpensive, and nutritious. Through authenticate check: it has been found that the protein contain is about 3.7%, the carbohydrate 67%, fat 1.73%, and humidity 26.9%.

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